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HOW SMART IS YOUR ROBOT VEHICLE - There are six levels (1-6) of possible automation for autonomous land vehicles, with L0, being no assistance for a human operator, except perhaps for a SatNAv, to help a person find their way, and a smartphone, for when they get lost, or breakdown..




Level 2 - Partial automation


At level 2, the driver remains responsible and must be ready to take control of the vehicle at any time, so does not apply to robotaxis or robotrucks. The vehicle can at the same time manage the driving, regulate the speed and brakes, to brake automatically if an obstruction presents.

The Tesla Autopilot or the Valeo park assist are good examples of level 2 autonomous driving as well as the speed stabilizer, otherwise called cruise control. It is known as "Hands Off" in English meaning that the driver can intermittently, and in special cases, release the steering wheel or pedals for short periods.

Level 0 - No Automation
Level 1 - Driver Assistance
Level 2 - Partial automation
Level 3 - Conditional automation
Level 4 - High automation
Level 5 : Full automation

Level 6 : L5 Fully autonomous AI refuelling

As of 6th June 2021, no car manufacturer has yet reached levels 5 or 6.






At the moment, the only concept that would be capable of servicing fully L5 vehicles would be the proposed SmartNet mult-ifuel service stations, where such vehicles will eventually have no human operators to plug-in charge, or fill up with hydrogen from the pumps.


Allied to automatic vending, is PAYD (Pay As You Drive) billing, also seen as a necessary function for autonomous, unmanned, self-driving, robotic vehicles of the future.









SMART SERVICING FOR ROBOTS - Those looking for a future proofed infrastructure for renewably sourced energy for electric robotic vehicles, may want to consider the new breed of self driving passenger cars, taxis, and commercial trucks that will benefit from automated energy vending if they are to be fully autonomous in operation over long distances or for round the clock city duties - most especially unmanned robotic taxis and freight trucks.





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