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Arnold Schwarzenegger riding in a Johnny Cab, Total Recall 1990



HOW SMART IS YOUR ROBOT VEHICLE - There are six levels (1-6) of possible automation for autonomous land vehicles, with L0, being no assistance for a human operator, except perhaps for a SatNAv, to help a person find their way, and a smartphone, for when they get lost, or breakdown. Arnold Schwazenegger was the Governor of California, during which time he pushed for cleaner air, including giving the thumbs up for electric vehicles. But, during his time in office, the political will was not heated by melting ice caps and the likes of Greta Thunberg.





Level 6 : L5 Fully autonomous AI self refuelling


Level 6 is where your personal autonomous transport, or the robotaxi you are a passenger in, truck, etc., knows when it is running low on energy and schedules a refuelling stop at a compatible service station. Or, where an energy pack has failed, notifies the emergency services for a replacement pack - or other assistance. This is a significant advance on L5.



Level 0 - No Automation
Level 1 - Driver Assistance
Level 2 - Partial automation
Level 3 - Conditional automation
Level 4 - High automation
Level 5 : Full automation

Level 6 : L5 Fully autonomous AI refuelling

As of 6th June 2021, no car manufacturer has yet reached levels 5 or 6.




At the moment, the only concept that would be capable of servicing fully L5 vehicles would be the proposed SmartNet mult-ifuel service stations, where such vehicles will eventually have no human operators to plug-in charge, or fill up with hydrogen from the pumps.


Allied to automatic vending, is PAYD (Pay As You Drive) billing, also seen as a necessary function for autonomous, unmanned, self-driving, robotic vehicles of the future.









SMART SERVICING FOR ROBOTS - Those looking for a future proofed infrastructure for renewably sourced energy for electric robotic vehicles, may want to consider the new breed of self driving passenger cars, taxis, and commercial trucks that will benefit from automated energy vending if they are to be fully autonomous in operation over long distances or for round the clock city duties - most especially unmanned robotic taxis and freight trucks.





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